COVID-19 Guidance for Paramedics

2019 NOVEL CORONAVIRUS

Last update: October 19, 2021

On October 19, 2021, the Medical Advisory Committee (MAC) released the latest memo Considerations for Paramedics Managing Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Information about COVID-19 and clinical intervention on this site that is dated October 19, 2021 or later is valid until the release of new considerations.

One Year Into the Pandemic

March 2021

A video message from Dr. Dionne

 

On the occasion of the one year anniversary of responding to COVID-19 in our communities, RPPEO Medical Director, Dr. Richard Dionne, took some time to speak directly to paramedics in Eastern Ontario.

Hear from Dr. Dionne as he reflects on the past year, on current practice in 911 paramedicine and on what paramedics are facing as we continue to respond.

If you'd like to leave comments about the video, please visit this page. As always, we welcome your questions and ideas.

As the pandemic progresses, the RPPEO will continue to promote the adaptation of clinical guidance as needed. The key considerations for us are paramedic safety and patient clinical needs. The changes are coming in phases, based on the epidemiology of COVID-19 in our region and in Ontario.

We are very closely monitoring the pandemic. The RPPEO is looking to Public Health Ontario, the Ministry of Health and the Ontario Base Hospital Group - Medical Advisory Committee for their direction on clinical practice.  If we find a need for specific guidance for our region - based on epidemiology and other factors in this region - the RPPEO's medical direction team is at the ready to provide clinical guidance for Eastern Ontario paramedics.

As always, we are counting on paramedics to provide the excellent, compassionate care that the public has come to expect. We realize that continuing to follow the Patient Care Standards while applying the additional considerations and medical direction is challenging. We are here to help. If you have any questions about the additional considerations issued to date, do not hesitate to reach out to us through MedicASK, by email or by calling.

We are answering paramedic questions as quickly as possible and updating answers as needed, given the variable speed at which the pandemic is evolving.

Thank you for your commitment to paramedicine and your devotion to the patients who need our help during this exceptional time.

 

COVID-19 public health measures and advice

Open for Step 3

Continue reading for more clinical guidance for paramedics.

MEMORANDUM

Oct 19, 2021

Considerations for Paramedics Managing Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic

TRAINING BULLETIN 120: NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) V.1.6

Updated Oct 5, 2020

Directive #4 for Ambulance Services and Paramedics

Revised March 30, 2020

COVID-19 SCREENING TOOL FOR PARAMEDICS

August 26, 2021

OUTIL DE DÉPISTAGE DU COVID-19 POUR LES AMBULANCIERS PARAMÉDICAUX

26 aout 2021

In Brief

  • The provincial Medical Advisory Committee (MAC) continues to provide clinical guidance for paramedics during the COVID-19 pandemic. This section provides a summary of some of the important considerations from MAC. Please read MAC's guidance for the complete list of considerations.

  • After 18 months of providing patient care during the pandemic,  factors such as vaccination status, PPE or location should inform the paramedics' point of care risk asessment and subsequent clinical care.

  • The COVID-19 pandemic is an extenuating circumstance. Paramedics in this circumstance may not be able to provide all treatment that they’ve considered.

  • Paramedics should act as though all respiratory patients are COVID-19 positive while continuing to use the COVID-19 Screening Tool

  • MAC has identified the aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP) that are deemed higher risk for transmission of COVID-19. MAC gives these AGMP additional considerations and guidance which applies to all patients regardless of COVID-19 Screening Tool result. Please read MAC's guidance for the complete list of considerations.

  • Paramedics should consider withholding the following interventions:

    • Endotracheal Medication Administration
    • IN and buccal Medication Administration when other routes exist
    • Endotracheal and Tracheostomy Suctioning via an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube unless using a closed system suction unit
    • Use of CPAP if other treatment is available
  • Paramedics should continue to screen all patients using the Ministry of Health's COVID-19 Screening Tool for Paramedics

CLINICAL GUIDANCE FOR PARAMEDICS ON COVID-19

The Advanced Life Support Patient Care Standards allow for contingency in the face of extenuating circumstances. COVID-19 may affect the clinical situation and may be considered an extenuating circumstance, depending on the full context of the clinical (and possibly operational) situation.

The Medical Advisory Committee is providing additional clinical guidance on many of the clinical situations which may present increased risk of vial transmission during the pandemic. As the context changes, MAC updates this guidance.

To ensure your are up-to-date with the latest udiance, please read the Ontario Base Hospital Medical Advisory Committee’s “Memorandum: Considerations for Paramedics Managing Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic,” the Ministry of Health’s “Training Bulletin 120: Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19),” and the Ministry of Health's COVID-19 Screening Tool for Paramedics for all the details.

For current information about COVID-19, including AGMP and other viral transmission risk considerations, Point of Care Risk Assessment, PPE advice and more, visit Public Health Ontario.

PATIENT ASSESSMENT

For each patient, one paramedic should approach and use the COVID-19 Screening Tool. The result of this screening will help you orient your infection control precautions and care approach.

The COVID-19 Screening Tool is a simple question and answer algorithm for paramedics that combines clinical and epidemiological information to identify patients whose condition should be investigated for 2019 novel coronavirus. It is based on the case definition from the Public Health Agency of Canada.

A positive result to the screen means that the patient is a Person Under Investigation for COVID-19.

Note that Central Ambulance Communication Centres are screening callers for 2019 novel coronavirus.

TREATMENT

Paramedics should continue to care for all patients including those with respiratory symptoms according to Medical Directives, except where special guidance is given. The ALS PCS recognizes that in extenuating circumstances paramedics may not be able to provide all the treatments that they’ve considered. MAC considers the COVID-19 pandemic as an extenuating circumstance.

For patients with respiratory signs or symptoms, including cardiac arrest, you may need to adapt your care plan. MAC advises additional considerations and guidance for care in the interventions where aerosolized pathogens may be a concern.

See the MAC Memorandum: Considerations for Paramedics Managing Patients with Possible Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) for more information.

NOTIFICATION

When caring for patients who screen positive, paramedics should notify the receiving facility that the incoming patient screened positive on the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Screening Tool.

Paramedics may also indicate, or the emergency department may ask for, the following summary information:

  • Which clinical symptoms are present:
    • fever,
    • new onset of cough,
    • worsening chronic cough,
    • shortness of breath,
    • difficulty breathing
    • sore throat,
    • hoarse voice,
    • difficulty swallowing,
    • decrease or loss of sense of smell,
    • chills,
    • headaches,
    • unexplained fatigue/malaise,
    • diarrhea,
    • abdominal pain,
    • nausea/vomiting,
    • Pink eye (conjunctivitis),
    • runny nose/sneezing without other known cause, or
    • nasal congestion without other known cause
  • If the person is over 65 years of age, are they experiencing any of the following:
    • delirium,
    • unexplained or increased number of falls,
    • acute functional decline, or
    • worsening of chronic conditions
  • What epidemiological factors are present:
    • close contact with anyone with acute respiratory illness in the past 14 days
    • travelled outside of Canada in the past 14 days
    • confirmed case of COVID-19
    • had close contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19
DOCUMENTATION

Paramedics should continue using the Ministry of Health’s Ambulance Call Report codes for COVID-19 patient screening. A patient who presents with conditions outlined in the screening tool is POSITIVE.

  • Miscellaneous Procedures - “407.02 - COVID-19 Screening POSITIVE”
  • Miscellaneous Procedures - “407.03 - COVID-19 Screening NEGATIVE”

Documentation of your clinical and epidemiological findings and considerations is always very important. Include information about extenuating circumstances such as respiratory symptoms, a positive screen for COVID-19 or the considerations that led to your assessment and treatment in the Remarks section of your ACR. This is especially important if you modify care from that in the Medical Directives.

As a reminder, you should also document on your ACR what routine practices and additional precautions you used. Guidance on infection prevention and control is available in the Training Bulletin and in version 2.2 of the Patient Care and Transportation Standards (PCTS) 

Provincial Longterm Plan for COVID-19 Public Health Management

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